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Embodied grounding can come not only from sensory but also from perception of internal states.

There are visuo-somatosensory neurons in the putamen.

Graziano and Gross found visuo-somatosensory neurons in those regions of the putamen which code for arms and the face in somatosensory space.

Visuo-somatosensory neurons in the putamen with somatosensory RFs in the face are very selective: They seem to respond to visual stimuli consistent with an upcoming somatosensory stimulus (close-by objects approaching to the somatosensory RFs of the neurons).

Graziano and Gross report on visuo-somatosensory cells in the putamen in which remapping seems to be happening: Those cells responded to visual stimuli only when the animal could see the arm in which the somatosensory RF of those cells was located.

There are reports of highly selective, purely visual cells in the putamen. One report is of a cell which responded best to a human face.

Responses of visuo-tactile responses in Brodman area 7b, the ventral intraparietal area, and inferior premotor area 6 are similar to those found in the putamen.

The way many sensory organs work naturally provides a homomorphic mapping from the location of a stimulus into the population of peripheral sensory neurons:

The location of a visual stimulus determines which part of the retina is stimulated.

The identity of a peripheral somesthetic neuron immediately identifies the location of sensory stimulation on the body surface.

The identity of peripheral auditory neurons responding to an auditory stimulus is not dependent on the location of that stimulus.

Instead, localization cues must be extracted from the temporal dynamics and spectral properties of binaural auditory signals.

This is in contrast with visual and somesthetic localization.

In the Simon task, subjects are required to respond to a stimulus with a response that is spatially congruent or incongruent to that stimulus: They have, for example, to press a button with the left hand in response to a stimulus which is presented either on the left or on the right. Congruent responses (stimulus on the left—respond by pressing a button with the left hand) is usually faster than an incongruent response.

Eliasmith et al. model sensory-motor processing as task-dependent compression of sensory data and decompression of motor programs.