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Satou et al. assume there is switch-like' behavior in toad tounge snapping and predator avoidance.

According to Satou et al., the optic tectum is where the decision to snap the tongue (at insects).

The timing of correct pro-saccades has a bi-modal distribution. One class of pro-saccades happens very fast (express saccades), the others take a little longer.

Express saccades are thought of as reflex behavior. The reflex behind them is referred to as the 'visual grasp reflex'.

They are believed to be the result of a direct translation of a visual stimulus into a motor command.

In anti-saccade conditions, the visual grasp reflex' must be suppressed.

One family of models for saccades and anti-saccades are the `accumulator models'.

These models pose that activation of saccade and saccade suppression neurons race each other. The one first to reach a threshold wins.