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The reward prediction error theory of dopamine function says that the difference between expected and actual reward is encoded in dopamine neurons.

To calculate reward prediction error, dopamine neurons need to receive both inputs coding for experienced and expected reward.

Verschure states his is an early model in the tradition of what he calls the "predictive brain" hypothesis and relates it to Friston's free energy principle and Kalman filtering.

Verschure explains that, in his DAC system, the contextual layer overrules the adaptive layer as soon as it is able to predict perception well enough.

One version of DAC uses SOMs.

Schenck summarizes three neurorobotic studies in which he evaluates visual prediction, and, more specifically, predictive remapping. He argues that his experiments support a claim in psychology saying that pre-saccadic activation of neurons whose receptive fields will contain the location of a salient stimulus after the saccade is not just pre-activation but actually a prediction of what the visual field will be like after the saccade.

Patrick Winston differentiates two kinds of cognitive performance:

  • reactive, "thermometer"-like behavior,
  • predictive, "model making" behavior

Patrick Winston says that Rodney Brooks was wrong in neglecting "model making", representational processes in human cognition.

Patrick Winston states that predictive simulation is enabled by considerable reuse of perceptual and motor apparatus

Patrick Winston calls perception "guided hallucination"

Saeb et al. extend their model by a short-term memory which encodes the last action. This action memory is used to make up for noise and missing information.

Explicit or implicit representations of world dynamics are necessary for optimal controllers since they have to anticipate state changes before the arrival of the necessary sensor data.

Are there representations, forward models of saccade controls in the SC?

Receptive fields in some LIP neurons shift just before a saccade to where their usual receptive field will be after the saccade.

Much of the activity of cognitive systems is not only due to current stimuli, but also to a large degree to previous experience, specifically due to the expectations following from it.

Many recent neural theories assume that higher-level brain regions form hypotheses about the world and that top-down, or feedback connections carry predictions for low-level stimuli derived from these hypotheses.