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Reward mediated learning has been demonstrated in adaptation of orienting behavior.

Integrating information from multiple stimuli can have advantages:

  • shorter reaction times
  • lower thresholds of stimulus detection
  • detection,
  • identification,
  • precision of orienting behavior

Irrelevant auditory stimuli can dramatically improve or degrade orientation performance in visual orientation tasks:

In Wilkinson et al.'s experiments, cats' performance in orienting towards near-threshold, medial visual stimuli was much improved by irrelevant auditory stimuli close to the visual stimuli and drastically degraded by irrelevant auditory stimuli far from the visual stimuli.

If visual stimuli were further to the edge of the visual field, then lateral auditory stimuli improved their detection rate even if they were disparate.

Chemical deactivation of AES degrades both the improvement and the degradation of performance in orienting towards visual due to auditory stimuli.

The frontoparietal network seems involved in executive control and orienting.

Integrating information from different modalities can improve

  • detection,
  • identification,
  • precision of orienting behavior,
  • reaction time.

The SC is involved in generating gaze shifts and other orienting behaviors.

In the Sprague effect, removing (or deactivating) one visual cortex eliminates visually induced orienting behavior to stimuli in the contralateral hemifield.

Lesioning (or deactivating) the contralateral SC restores the orienting behavior.

``The heminanopia that follows unilateral removal of the cortex that mediates visual behavior cannot be explained simply in classical terms of interruption of the visual behavior cannot be explained simply in classical terms of interruption of the visual radiations that serve cortical function.
Explanation fo the deficit requires a broader point of view, namely, that visual attention and perception are mediated at both forebrain and midbrain levels, which interact in their control of visually guided behavior.''

(Sprague, 1966)