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LSO, MSO, and DCN converge in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC).

Individual IC neurons combine localization cues.

Horizontal localizations are population-coded in the central nucleus of the mustache bat inferior colliculus.

Rucci et al. present an algorithm which performs auditory localization and combines auditory and visual localization in a common SC map. The mapping between the representations is learned using value-dependent learning.

Rucci et al.'s neural network learns how to align ICx and SC (OT) maps by means of value-dependent learning: The value signal depends on whether the target was in the fovea after a saccade.

Rucci et al.'s model of learning to combine ICx and SC maps does not take into account the point-to-point projections from SC to ICx reported later by Knudsen et al.

Rucci et al.'s plots of ICc activation look very similar to Jorge's IPD matrices.

Liu et al. model the LSO and MSO as well as the integrating inferior colliculus.

Their system can localize sounds with a spatial resolution of 30 degrees.

Liu et al.'s model of the IC includes a Jeffress-type model of the MSO.

Knudsen and Konishi refer to the nucleus mesencephalus lateralis dorsalis as the avian homologue of the mammalian inferior colliculus.

The external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) used to be called the space-mapped region of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLD),

Like many other auditory brain regions, the IC is tonotopically organized, except for ICx.

Rucci et al.'s system comprises artificial neural populations modeling MSO (aka. the nucleus laminaris), the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc), the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx), the retina, and the superior colliculus (SC, aka. the optic tectum). The population modeling the SC is split into a sensory and a motor subpopulation.

In Rucci et al.'s system, the MSO is modeled by computing Fourier transforms for each of the auditory signals. The activity of the MSO neurons is then determined by their individual preferred frequency and ITD and computed directly from the Fourier-transformed data.

ICx projects to intermediate and deep layers of SC.

The shift in the auditory map in ICx comes with changed projections from ICc to ICx.

The nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (nbic) projects to intermediate and deep layers of SC.

SC receives auditory localization-related inputs from the IC.

The tectum includes both sc (optic tectum) and ic

The external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) of the barn owl represents a map of auditory space.

Individually, auditory cues are highly ambiguous with respect to auditory localization.

Cue combination across auditory cue types and channels (frequencies) are needed to combine auditory cues to a meaningful localization.

Auditory localization within the so-called cone of confusion can be disambiguated using spectral cues: changes in the spectral shape of a sound due to how the sound reflects, bounces and passes through features of an animal's body. Such changes can only be detected for known sounds.

Benevenuto and Fallon found projections from the SC mostly to midbrain and thalamus structures. They did not study projections to cortical regions. In detail, they found projections to:


  • inferior colliculus
  • pretectum


  • ventral lgn
  • dorsal lgn
  • suprageniculate nucleus
  • intralaminar nuclei
  • parafascicular nucleus
  • parts of dorsomedial nucleus
  • suprageniculate nucleus
  • certain pulvinar nuclei
  • lateral posterior nucleus
  • reunions nucleus
  • ventral posterior inferior nucleus
  • ventral posterior lateral nuclei
  • ventral lateral nucleus
  • limitans nucleus


  • dorsomedial nucleus


  • Fields of Forel (subthalamic)
  • zona incerta
  • accessory optic tract (in midbrain)