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The Hartigans' Dip Statistic measures unimodality in a sample: Specifically, it measures the greatest difference between the empirical cumulative distribution function and that unimodal cumulative distribution function which minimizes that greatest difference.⇒

Freeman and Dale discuss three measures for detecting bimodality in an observed probability distribution:

- The bimodality coefficient (BC),
- Hartigan's dip statistic (HDS), and
- Akaike's information criterion between one-component and two-component distribution models (AID).⇒

According to Freeman and Dale, Hartigan's dip statistic is more robust against skew than either the bimodality coefficent and Akaike's information criterion.⇒

In Freeman and Dale's simulations, Hartigan's dip statistic was the most sensitive in detecting bimodality.⇒

In Freeman and Dale's simulations, Hartigan's dip statistic was strongly influenced by proportion between modes.⇒

Pfister et al. recommend using Hartigan's dip statistic and the bimodality coefficient plus visual inspection to detect bimodality.⇒