Patients with lesions in V1 or striate were found to still be able to discriminate gender and expression of faces. ⇒
Neurons in the monkey pulvinar react extremely fast to visually perceived faces (50ms).⇒
Nakano et al. presented an image of either a butterfly or a neutral or emotional face to their participants. The stimuli were either grayscale or color-scale images, where color-scale images were isoluminant and only varied in their yellow-green color values. Since information from S-cones does not reach the superior colliculus, these faces were presumably only processed in visual cortex.
Nakano et al. found that their participants reacted to gray-scale emotional faces faster than to gray-scale neutral faces and to gray-scale faces faster than to gray-scale butterflies. Their participants reacted somewhat faster to color-scale faces than to color-scale butterflies, but this effect was much smaller than for gray-scale images. Also, the difference in reaction time to color-scale emotional faces was not significantly different from that to color-scale neutral faces.
Nakano et al. take this as further evidence of sub-cortical face detection and in particular of emotional sub-cortical face detection. ⇒