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Patients with lesions in V1 or striate were found to still be able to discriminate gender and expression of faces.

Neurons in the monkey pulvinar react extremely fast to visually perceived faces (50ms).

Nakano et al. presented an image of either a butterfly or a neutral or emotional face to their participants. The stimuli were either grayscale or color-scale images, where color-scale images were isoluminant and only varied in their yellow-green color values. Since information from S-cones does not reach the superior colliculus, these faces were presumably only processed in visual cortex.

Nakano et al. found that their participants reacted to gray-scale emotional faces faster than to gray-scale neutral faces and to gray-scale faces faster than to gray-scale butterflies. Their participants reacted somewhat faster to color-scale faces than to color-scale butterflies, but this effect was much smaller than for gray-scale images. Also, the difference in reaction time to color-scale emotional faces was not significantly different from that to color-scale neutral faces.

Nakano et al. take this as further evidence of sub-cortical face detection and in particular of emotional sub-cortical face detection.