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There are voluntary (endogenous) and reflexive (exogenous) mechanisms of guiding selective attention.

Stimuli which are non-predictive in a task—like localized stimuli in one modality which are non-predictive of the position of the target in another modality—can enhance performance in valid instances of that task—like detecting targets which by coincidence are where the non-predictive stimulus was.

This demonstrates the existence of exogenous attention.

Bertelson et al. did not find a shift of sound source localization due to manipulated endogenous visual spatial attention—localization was shifted only due to (the salience of) light flashes which would induce (automatic, mandatory) exogenous attention.

A localized visual stimulus can shorten the response to a target stimulus if it appears near and shortly after the first stimulus.

It can lengthen the response time if the target stimulus appears somewhere else or too late.

A localized visual stimulus can lengthen the response time to a target if the target stimulus appears somewhere too late after the first stimulus.

This is called `inhibition of return'.