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Among the methods compared by Dávila-Chacón et al. for sound source localization on the iCub are

  • the Liu et al. system,
  • the Liu et al. system with additional classifiers
  • Cross-correlation.

Sound-source localization using head-related impulse response functions is precise, but computationally expensive.

Wan et al. use simple cross-correlation (which is computationally cheap, but not very precise) to localize sounds roughly. They then use the rough estimate to speed up MacDonald's cross-channel algorithm which uses head-related impulse response functions.

By maximizing cross-correlation between two mutually time-shifted signals, one can estimate the shift between them.

Cross-correlation can be used to estimate the ITD of a sound perceived in two ears.

Voges et al. use ITDs (computed via generalized cross-correlation) for sound-source localization.

Aarabi use ITD (computed using cross-correlation) and ILD in an array of 3 microphones for auditory localization.