It's hard to do fMRI of the brain stem, in part because structures there are small.⇒
According to Casteau and Vitu, a fixation population, if it exists, is probably located not in the SC but in the brainstem omnipause region.⇒
Absence epilepsy—sudden loss of consciousness with amnesia but not always with total loss of cognitive function—has been induced by electrostimulation of the upper brainstem, but not of cortical regions.⇒
The brainstem may be involved in creating consciousness.⇒
Cortical structures do not always control our overt behavior. Instead, sub-cortical areas sometimes override cortical tendencies.⇒
Sub-cortical structures (like the SC) have bearing on cortical functionality.⇒
``The heminanopia that follows unilateral removal of the cortex that mediates visual behavior cannot be explained simply in classical terms of interruption of the visual behavior cannot be explained simply in classical terms of interruption of the visual radiations that serve cortical function.
Explanation fo the deficit requires a broader point of view, namely, that visual attention and perception are mediated at both forebrain and midbrain levels, which interact in their control of visually guided behavior.''
Brainstem activation is very similar to actual muscle behavior.⇒
The deeper layers of the SC project strongly to brainstem, spinal cord, especially to those regions involved in moving eyes, ears, head and limbs, and to sensory and motor areas of thalamus.⇒