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Soltani and Wang argue that their model is consistent with the 'base rate neglect' fallacy.

The base rate fallacy is a fallacy occuring in human decision making in which humans estimate a posterior probability without properly taking account of the prior probability (i.e. solely on the basis of the likelihood).

To estimate optimally, it is necessary to take into account the rate of each stimulus value. This is neglected by the efficient coding approach, which is recognized by the opponents.