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Regions lesions of which can induce visuospatial neglect include

  • the parietal lobe, in particular the inferior part,
  • temporo-parietal junction,
  • the anterior cingulate cortex,
  • basal ganglia,
  • thalamus,
  • the pulvinar nucleus.

Krauzlis et al. argue that attention may not so much be a explicit mechanism but a phenomenon emerging from the need of distributed information processing systems (biological and artificial) for centralized coordination:

According to that view, some centralized control estimates the state of (some part of) the world and modulates both action and perception according to the state which is estimated to be the most plausible at any given point.

Krauzlis et al. localize this central control in the basal ganglia.

McHaffie et al. describe subcortical loops, and in particular loops involving the SC, through the basal ganglia.

McHaffie et al. speculate that loops through various subcortical loops might solve the selection problem, ie. the gating of competing inputs to shared resources.

In the SC, this means that the basal ganglia decide which of the brain structures involved in gaze shifts access to the eye motor circuitry.

Classical models assume that learning in cortical regions is well described in an unsupervised learning framework while learning in the basal ganglia can be modeled by reinforcement learning.