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A traditional model of visual processing for perception and action proposes that the two tasks rely on different visual representations. This model explains the weak effect of visual illusions like the Müller-Lyer illuson on performance in grasping tasks.

Foster et al. challenge the methodology used in a previous study by Dewar and Carey which supports the perception and action model of visual processing due to Goodale and Milner.

They do that by changing the closed visual-action loop in Dewar and Carey's study into an open one by removing visual feedback at motion onset. The result is that the effect of the illusion is there for grasping (which it wasn't in the closed-loop condition) but not (as strongly) for manual object size estimation.

Foster et al. argue that this suggests that the effect found in Dewar and Carey's study is due to continuous visual feedback.

Kustov's and Robinson's results support the hypothesis that there is a strong connection of action and attention.

I believe that one use of multisensory convergence, in early cortex and in sub-cortical regions, is useful because often responses do not depend on the modality but on the content. The SC, for example initiates orienting actions towards salient stimuli. It does not matter whether these are salient visual or auditory stimuli—it's always a good idea to orient towards them.

It is hard to explain higher-level cognition solely in terms of correspondence to perception or action.

The traditional view of cognitive representation needs to be extended rather than replaced by aspects and mechanisms of correspondence to perception and action.

Verschure summarizes version VII of his distributed adaptive control model as "a unifying theory" of perception cognition, and action. He states that it uses a learned world model in its contextual layer which biases perception processing (top-down) on the one hand, and saliency (bottom-up) on the other. Between these to appears to be what he calls the validation gate which defines matching and mismatch between world model and percepts.

Saeb et al. extend their model by a short-term memory which encodes the last action. This action memory is used to make up for noise and missing information.

Simulations can lead researchers to postulate unrealistically reliable sensor data or actuation.

Embodied robots bring together the complexity of sensing and action the real world poses. These are not present in simple models and simulations.