Show Reference: "Salience Representation in the Parietal and Frontal Cortex"

Salience Representation in the Parietal and Frontal Cortex Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 5. (14 April 2009), pp. 918-930, doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21233 by Alexandre Zenon, Nabil Filali, Jean-René Duhamel, Etienne Olivier
@article{zenon-et-al-2009,
    abstract = {Some objects in the visual field are more likely to attract attention because they are either intrinsically eye catching or relevant in the context of a particular task. These two factors, known as stimulus-driven and goal-directed factors, respectively, are thought to be integrated into a unique salience map, possibly located in the frontal or the parietal cortex. However, the distinct contribution of these two regions to salience representation is difficult to establish experimentally and remains debated. In an attempt to address this issue, we designed several dual tasks composed of a letter reporting task and a visual search task, allowing us to quantify the salience of each visual item by measuring its probability to be selected by attention. In Experiment 1, the salience of the visual search items depended on a combination of conspicuity and relevance factors, whereas in Experiment 2, stimulus-driven and goal-directed factors were tested separately. Then, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to interfere transiently with the function of the right angular gyrus ({ANG}) or right {FEFs} in healthy subjects performing these dual tasks. We found that interfering with the {ANG} and the {FEF} function specifically altered the influence of salience on the letter report rate without affecting the overall letter reporting rate, suggesting that these areas are involved in salience representation. In particular, the present study suggests that {ANG} is involved in goal-directed salience representation, whereas {FEF} would rather house a global salience map integrating both goal-directed and stimulus-driven factors. Some objects in the visual field are more likely to attract attention because they are either intrinsically eye catching or relevant in the context of a particular task. These two factors, known as stimulus-driven and goal-directed factors, respectively, are thought to be integrated into a unique salience map, possibly located in the frontal or the parietal cortex. However, the distinct contribution of these two regions to salience representation is difficult to establish experimentally and remains debated. In an attempt to address this issue, we designed several dual tasks composed of a letter reporting task and a visual search task, allowing us to quantify the salience of each visual item by measuring its probability to be selected by attention. In Experiment 1, the salience of the visual search items depended on a combination of conspicuity and relevance factors, whereas in Experiment 2, stimulus-driven and goal-directed factors were tested separately. Then, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to interfere transiently with the function of the right angular gyrus ({ANG}) or right {FEFs} in healthy subjects performing these dual tasks. We found that interfering with the {ANG} and the {FEF} function specifically altered the influence of salience on the letter report rate without affecting the overall letter reporting rate, suggesting that these areas are involved in salience representation. In particular, the present study suggests that {ANG} is involved in goal-directed salience representation, whereas {FEF} would rather house a global salience map integrating both goal-directed and stimulus-driven factors.},
    author = {Zenon, Alexandre and Filali, Nabil and Duhamel, Jean-Ren\'{e} and Olivier, Etienne},
    day = {14},
    doi = {10.1162/jocn.2009.21233},
    journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
    keywords = {biology, bottom-up, saliency, visual-processing},
    month = apr,
    number = {5},
    pages = {918--930},
    posted-at = {2011-09-21 08:41:12},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {MIT Press},
    title = {Salience Representation in the Parietal and Frontal Cortex},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025013/},
    volume = {22},
    year = {2009}
}

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