Show Reference: "Color-Related Signals in the Primate Superior Colliculus"

Color-Related Signals in the Primate Superior Colliculus The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 29, No. 39. (30 September 2009), pp. 12159-12166, doi:10.1523/jneurosci.1986-09.2009 by Brian J. White, Susan E. Boehnke, Robert A. Marino, Laurent Itti, Douglas P. Munoz
    abstract = {Color is important for segmenting objects from backgrounds, which can in turn facilitate visual search in complex scenes. However, brain areas involved in orienting the eyes toward colored stimuli in our environment are not believed to have access to color information. Here, we show that neurons in the intermediate layers of the monkey superior colliculus ({SC}), a critical structure for the production of saccadic eye movements, can respond to isoluminant color stimuli with the same magnitude as a maximum contrast luminance stimulus. In contrast, neurons from the superficial {SC} layers showed little color-related activity. Crucially, visual onset latencies were 30–35 ms longer for color, implying that luminance and chrominance information reach the {SC} through distinct pathways and that the observed color-related activity is not the result of residual luminance signals. Furthermore, these differences in visual onset latency translated directly into differences in saccadic reaction time. The results demonstrate that the saccadic system can signal the presence of chromatic stimuli only one stage from the brainstem premotor circuitry that drives the eyes.},
    author = {White, Brian J. and Boehnke, Susan E. and Marino, Robert A. and Itti, Laurent and Munoz, Douglas P.},
    day = {30},
    doi = {10.1523/jneurosci.1986-09.2009},
    issn = {1529-2401},
    journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience},
    keywords = {biology, color, retina, sc, visual-processing},
    month = sep,
    number = {39},
    pages = {12159--12166},
    pmid = {19793973},
    posted-at = {2013-12-09 13:55:55},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
    title = {{Color-Related} Signals in the Primate Superior Colliculus},
    url = {},
    volume = {29},
    year = {2009}

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There are projections from visual cortex to SC.

SC neurons respond faster to stimuli based on luminance contrasts than on color contrast.

Superficial SC neurons seem to have little to no access to color information.

Deep SC neurons do react to stimuli based on color contrast.

There is reason to believe that color information reaches the SC via cortical routes.