Show Reference: "Infants in Control: Rapid Anticipation of Action Outcomes in a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm"

Infants in Control: Rapid Anticipation of Action Outcomes in a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 2. (17 February 2012), e30884, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030884 by Quan Wang, Jantina Bolhuis, Constantin A. Rothkopf, et al.
    abstract = {Infants' poor motor abilities limit their interaction with their environment and render studying infant cognition notoriously difficult. Exceptions are eye movements, which reach high accuracy early, but generally do not allow manipulation of the physical environment. In this study, real-time eye tracking is used to put 6- and 8-month-old infants in direct control of their visual surroundings to study the fundamental problem of discovery of agency, i.e. the ability to infer that certain sensory events are caused by one's own actions. We demonstrate that infants quickly learn to perform eye movements to trigger the appearance of new stimuli and that they anticipate the consequences of their actions in as few as 3 trials. Our findings show that infants can rapidly discover new ways of controlling their environment. We suggest that gaze-contingent paradigms offer effective new ways for studying many aspects of infant learning and cognition in an interactive fashion and provide new opportunities for behavioral training and treatment in infants.},
    author = {Wang, Quan and Bolhuis, Jantina and Rothkopf, Constantin A. and Kolling, Thorsten and Knopf, Monika and Triesch, Jochen},
    day = {17},
    doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0030884},
    journal = {PLoS ONE},
    keywords = {biology, development, eye-movements, learning, localization, motor, visual},
    month = feb,
    number = {2},
    pages = {e30884+},
    posted-at = {2012-02-20 16:38:55},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Public Library of Science},
    title = {Infants in Control: Rapid Anticipation of Action Outcomes in a {Gaze-Contingent} Paradigm},
    url = {},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2012}

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Excitatory burst neurons (EBNs) in the paramedian pontine reticular formation (pprf) (pons) initiate saccades.

These neurons receive direct excitatory input from SC and inhibitory input from the nucleus raphe interpositus (RIP) (brainstem).

Wang et al. provide evidence that SC might during saccades turn of RIP inhibition through the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF) while it drives EBNs.