Show Reference: "Development of Multisensory Neurons and Multisensory Integration in Cat Superior Colliculus"

Development of Multisensory Neurons and Multisensory Integration in Cat Superior Colliculus The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 17, No. 7. (01 April 1997), pp. 2429-2444 by Mark T. Wallace, Barry E. Stein
    abstract = {The development of multisensory neurons and multisensory integration was examined in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of kittens ranging in age from 3 to 135 d postnatal (dpn). Despite the high proportion of multisensory neurons in adult animals, no such neurons were found during the first 10 d of postnatal life. Rather, all sensory-responsive neurons were unimodal. The first multisensory neurons (somatosensory‚Äďauditory) were found at 12 dpn, and visually responsive multisensory neurons were not found until 20 dpn. Early multisensory neurons responded weakly to sensory stimuli, had long latencies, large receptive fields, and poorly developed response selectivities. Most surprising, however, was their inability to integrate combinations of sensory cues to produce significant response enhancement (or depression), a characteristic feature of the adult. Responses to combinations of sensory cues differed little from responses to their modality-specific components.},
    author = {Wallace, Mark T. and Stein, Barry E.},
    citeulike-article-id = {3432826},
    citeulike-linkout-0 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-1 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-2 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-3 = {},
    day = {01},
    issn = {1529-2401},
    journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience},
    keywords = {depression, development, enhancement, multisensory-integration, sc},
    month = apr,
    number = {7},
    pages = {2429--2444},
    pmid = {9065504},
    posted-at = {2014-09-24 16:10:20},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
    title = {Development of Multisensory Neurons and Multisensory Integration in Cat Superior Colliculus},
    url = {},
    volume = {17},
    year = {1997}

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Enhancement, depression, multisensory interaction on the neural level are mathematically defined by Wallace and Stein as

$$ 100\times\frac{r_{mm}-\max(r_a,r_v)}{\max(r_a,r_v)}, $$ where $r_a$, and $r_v$ are the mean responses to only an auditory or a visual stimulus and $r_{mm}$ is the response to the combination of the two.