# Show Reference: "Effect of Remote Distractors on Saccade Programming: Evidence for an Extended Fixation Zone"

Effect of Remote Distractors on Saccade Programming: Evidence for an Extended Fixation Zone Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 78, No. 2. (01 August 1997), pp. 1108-1119 by Robin Walker, Heiner Deubel, Werner X. Schneider, John M. Findlay
@article{walker-et-al-1997,
abstract = {Walker, Robin, Heiner Deubel, Werner X. Schneider, and John M. Findlay. Effect of remote distractors on saccade programming: evidence for an extended fixation zone. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 1108–1119, 1997. In a series of experiments, we examined the increase in saccade latency that is observed consistently when distractor stimuli are presented simultaneously with the saccade target at various nontarget locations. In the first experiment, targets and distractors were presented on the horizontal axis. We found that saccade latency was increased when distractors appeared at fixation and in the contralateral nontarget hemifield (at eccentricities ≤10°). In contrast, latency was unaffected by distractors presented along the ipsilateral target axis, but amplitude was increased as saccades tended to land at intermediate locations between the two stimuli (global effect). The effect of presenting distractors at various two-dimensional locations in both the target and nontarget hemifields then was examined, and the maximum latency increase again was observed when distractors appeared at fixation. Distractors presented on any of the eight principal axes in either hemifield, other than on the horizontal target axis, also increased latency. The relationship between the effects of distractors on latency and amplitude was reciprocal. Within ∼20° of the target axis itself, distractors affected saccade amplitude but not latency. In contrast, distractors presented outside this  ” window” increased saccade latency without affecting amplitude. A systematic quantitative relationship was revealed between the increase in latency and the ratio between target and distractor eccentricities. The latency increase was largest with small values of the ratio and reached a peak with distractors at the fixation location. The finding that the increase observed for more eccentric distractor locations fitted the same function as that at fixation shows that inhibitory effects operate over large areas of the visual field. The increase in latency under distractor conditions is interpreted in light of recent neurophysiological findings of inhibitory processes operating in the rostral region of the superior colliculus. Our results suggest that these inhibitory processes are not restricted to the central foveal region alone but operate over wider regions of the visual field.},
address = {Department of Psychology, University of Durham, United Kingdom.},
author = {Walker, Robin and Deubel, Heiner and Schneider, Werner X. and Findlay, John M.},
day = {01},
issn = {1522-1598},
journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
keywords = {biology, motor, sc},
month = aug,
number = {2},
pages = {1108--1119},
pmid = {9307138},
posted-at = {2012-12-13 11:42:46},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physiological Society},
title = {Effect of Remote Distractors on Saccade Programming: Evidence for an Extended Fixation Zone},
url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/78/2/1108.abstract},
volume = {78},
year = {1997}
}