# Show Reference: "Early Experience Affects the Development of Multisensory Integration in Single Neurons of the Superior Colliculus"

Early Experience Affects the Development of Multisensory Integration in Single Neurons of the Superior Colliculus In The New Handbook of Multisensory Processing (1 June 2012), pp. 589-606 by Barry E. Stein edited by Barry E. Stein
@incollection{stein-2012,
author = {Stein, Barry E.},
booktitle = {The New Handbook of Multisensory Processing},
chapter = {33},
day = {1},
editor = {Stein, Barry E.},
keywords = {biology, development, learning, multisensory-integration, sc},
month = jun,
pages = {589--606},
posted-at = {2012-12-07 16:44:45},
priority = {2},
publisher = {The MIT Press},
title = {Early Experience Affects the Development of Multisensory Integration in Single Neurons of the Superior Colliculus},
year = {2012}
}


Cats, being an altricial species, are born with little to no capability of multi-sensory integration and develop first multi-sensory SC neurons, then neurons exhibiting multi-sensory integration on the neural level only after birth.

Without an intact association cortex (or LIP), SC neurons cannot develop or maintain cross-modal integration.

(Neither multi-sensory enhancement nor depression.)

Most of the multi-sensory neurons in the (cat) SC are audio-visual followed by visual-somatosensory, but all other combinations can be found.

One reason for specifically studying multi-sensory integration in the (cat) SC is that there is a well-understood connection between input stimuli and overt behavior.

Stein defines multi-sensory integration on the single-neuron level as

a statistically significant difference between the number of impulses evoked by a cross-modal combination of stimuli and the number evoked by the most effective of these stimuli individually.''

The SC is also involved in eye, head, whole-body, ear, whisker and other body movements.

What we find in the SC we can use as a guide when studying other multi-sensory brain regions.

Multisensory integration is present in neonates to some degree depending on species (more in precocial than in altricial species), but it is subject to postnatal development and then influenced by experience.