Show Reference: "The brainstem control of saccadic eye movements"

The brainstem control of saccadic eye movements Nat Rev Neurosci, Vol. 3, No. 12. (01 December 2002), pp. 952-964, doi:10.1038/nrn986 by David L. Sparks
    abstract = {The modern era of oculomotor research began with the advent of the chronic single-unit recording method in the late 1960s. Research carried out in the intervening years has made it possible to provide a detailed description of the saccadic command signals that are generated by motor neurons and the formation of these signals in premotor brainstem regions. These findings have been assimilated in control-systems models that simulate important behavioural features of saccades. Despite these great advances, key issues, such as the nature of the feedback signal and the location of the comparator, are unresolved and some of the factors that have impeded progress can be identified.},
    author = {Sparks, David L.},
    citeulike-article-id = {5105661},
    citeulike-linkout-0 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-1 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-2 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-3 = {},
    day = {01},
    doi = {10.1038/nrn986},
    issn = {1471-003X},
    journal = {Nat Rev Neurosci},
    keywords = {biology, saccades, sc, sc-connectivity, sc-input, visual, visual-processing},
    month = dec,
    number = {12},
    pages = {952--964},
    pmid = {12461552},
    posted-at = {2014-03-11 15:25:03},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
    title = {The brainstem control of saccadic eye movements},
    url = {},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2002}

See the CiteULike entry for more info, PDF links, BibTex etc.

Removing both SCs and both FEFs leads to permanent deficits:

  • a decrease in fixation accuracy,
  • a neglect of the peripheral visual field,
  • saccade frequency is decreased,
  • the range of saccadic eye movements is reduced.

Brainstem premotor neurons producing the commands for eye movements are located in pons, medulla (horizontal movements), and the rostral midbrain (vertical movements).