Show Reference: "The mammalian superior colliculus: laminar structure and connections"

The mammalian superior colliculus: laminar structure and connections Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 151 (2006), pp. 321-378, doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(05)51011-2 by Paul J. May
    abstract = {The superior colliculus is a laminated midbrain structure that acts as one of the centers organizing gaze movements. This review will concentrate on sensory and motor inputs to the superior colliculus, on its internal circuitry, and on its connections with other brainstem gaze centers, as well as its extensive outputs to those structures with which it is reciprocally connected. This will be done in the context of its laminar arrangement. Specifically, the superficial layers receive direct retinal input, and are primarily visual sensory in nature. They project upon the visual thalamus and pretectum to influence visual perception. These visual layers also project upon the deeper layers, which are both multimodal, and premotor in nature. Thus, the deep layers receive input from both somatosensory and auditory sources, as well as from the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Sensory, association, and motor areas of cerebral cortex provide another major source of collicular input, particularly in more encephalized species. For example, visual sensory cortex terminates superficially, while the eye fields target the deeper layers. The deeper layers are themselves the source of a major projection by way of the predorsal bundle which contributes collicular target information to the brainstem structures containing gaze-related burst neurons, and the spinal cord and medullary reticular formation regions that produce head turning.},
    author = {May, Paul J.},
    doi = {10.1016/s0079-6123(05)51011-2},
    isbn = {9780444516961},
    issn = {1875-7855},
    journal = {Progress in Brain Research},
    keywords = {biology, cells, sc, sc-connectivity, sc-input, sc-output},
    pages = {321--378},
    pmid = {16221594},
    posted-at = {2013-12-06 08:33:26},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    title = {The mammalian superior colliculus: laminar structure and connections},
    url = {},
    volume = {151},
    year = {2006}

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The superior colliculus is connected, directly or indirectly, to most parts of the brain.

Superficial layers of the SC project to deep layers.

Both deep and superficial layers in left and right SC project to the corresponding layer in the contralateral SC.

SEF projects directly to the SC, but different researchers disagree on the SC layers the projections terminate.

There are ascending pathways from SC to the eye fields through talamic structures.

ICx projects to intermediate and deep layers of SC.

SC receives input and represents all sensory modalities used in phasic orienting: vision, audition, somesthesis (haptic), nociceptic, infrared, electoceptive, magnetic, and ecolocation.

The stratum zonale is the outermost, almost cell-free lamina of the SC.

The stratum griseum superficiale is the SC layer below the stratum zonale. It contains many small cells.

The stratum opticum is the innermost of the superficial SC layers, below the stratum griseum. It is dominated by fibers including retinal projections.

The stratum griseum intermediale is the outermost lamina of the deep SC.

The stratum album intermediale is the second-outermost lamina of the deep SC, below the stratum griseum intermediale.

The stratum griseum profundum is the third-outmost lamina of the deep SC, below the stratum album intermediale.

The stratum album profundum is the lowest lamina of the deep SC, below the stratum griseum profundum.

The stratum album profundum borders to the periaqueductal gray.

There are alternative nomenclatures for the layers of the deep sc.

The layers and internal connectivity of the optic tectum is similar but different from those of the mammalian SC.

The nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (nbic) projects to intermediate and deep layers of SC.

SC receives auditory localization-related inputs from the IC.

There are ascending projections from the superficial SC to the Thalamus and from there to extrastriate cortex.

Different parts of the visual field feed into the cortical and subcortical visual pathways more or less strongly in humans.

The nasal part of the visual field feeds more into the cortical pathway while the peripheral part feeds more into the sub-cortical pathway.

Neurons in the superficial SC are almost exclusively visual in most species.

Lateral intraparietal area (LIP) projects to intermediate layers of SC.

The retina projects to the superficial SC directly.