Show Reference: "Anatomy and Physiology of Experimentally Produced Striped Tecta"

Anatomy and Physiology of Experimentally Produced Striped Tecta Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 1, No. 7. (July 1981), pp. 741-759 by Margaret I. Law, Martha Constantine-Paton
    abstract = {Transplantation of a third eye primordium to the forebrain region of a frog (Rana pipiens) embryo causes two retinal projections to converge on a single tectal lobe. These projections form stereotyped eye-specific termination bands ({Constantine-Paton}, M., and M. I. Law (1978) Science 202: 639-641) that are similar to the source-specific stripes found normally in many regions of the mammalian brain. In the present study, we use quantitative analyses of anatomical data and double labeling techniques to demonstrate that induced bands of three-eyed frogs are approximately 200 micrometers wide, that they invariably run in a rostrolateral to caudomedial direction, and that they represent interdigitating synaptic zones which fill the entire superficial neuropil of the dually innervated tectal lobe. This periodic segregation pattern is not seen in the superinnervated diencephalon or in the optic tracts. Morphometric measurements on animals with dually innervated tectal lobes revealed an approximate 30\% hyperplasia that was restricted largely to the deeper predominantly cellular tectal layers. Each of the banded retinal projections occupied neuropil volumes that were roughly 50\% smaller than the volume occupied by the noncompeting retina of the same animal. Eye-specific segregation was detected with extracellular recording techniques as an ability of one of the two eyes to elicit consistently more and larger action potentials throughout a radial penetration of the superficial tectal neuropil. In several preparations, electrolytic lesions confirmed that physiologically defined positions of eye dominance corresponded to a band from the same eye. Maps of the visual field projections within dually innervated tecta were relatively normal and their orientation was consistent with the initial embryonic orientation of the retinas. Eye laterality, time of arrival, or fasciculation during growth are not responsible for this induced banding. Instead, our results are attributed to two mechanisms that are probably fundamental to neural mapping. These are: differential affinities between retinal and tecta loci which normally align the projection by bringing together appropriate pre- and postsynaptic areas and interactions among retinal ganglion cell fibers. The latter causes axons from physically neighboring retinal ganglion cell bodies to terminate together within the tectum and consequently increases the internal order of map. We propose that these same two mapping mechanisms may be responsible for the afferent segregation found in diverse regions of many vertebrate brains.},
    author = {Law, Margaret I. and Constantine-Paton, Martha},
    issn = {0270-6474},
    journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
    keywords = {biology, competition, frogs, sc},
    month = jul,
    number = {7},
    pages = {741--759},
    pmid = {6980968},
    posted-at = {2013-10-30 11:18:51},
    priority = {2},
    title = {Anatomy and Physiology of Experimentally Produced Striped Tecta},
    url = {},
    volume = {1},
    year = {1981}

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Law and Constantine-Paton transplanted eye primordia between tadpoles to create three-eyed frogs.

The additional eyes connected to the frogs' contralateral tecta and created competition of inputs which is not usually present in frogs (where the optic chiasm is perfect).

The result were tecta in which alternating stripes are responsive to input from different eyes.

Similar results result if one of the tecta is removed and both natural retinae project to the remaining tectum.