# Show Reference: "Attention as an effect not a cause"

Attention as an effect not a cause Trends in Cognitive Sciences (June 2014), doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.008 by Richard J. Krauzlis, Anil Bollimunta, Fabrice Arcizet, Lupeng Wang
@article{krauzlis-et-al-2014,
author = {Krauzlis, Richard J. and Bollimunta, Anil and Arcizet, Fabrice and Wang, Lupeng},
citeulike-article-id = {13241477},
doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.008},
issn = {13646613},
journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
keywords = {attention},
month = jun,
posted-at = {2014-06-24 16:33:49},
priority = {2},
title = {Attention as an effect not a cause},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.008},
year = {2014},
pages = {457–-464},
volume = {18},
number = {9}
}



Attention developed quite early. Even very simple organisms, like drosophila and honeybees, show evidence of attentional processes.

Krauzlis et al. state that collicular deactivation has not been found to eliminate signs of task-based attention in neural responses in cortex.

Krauzlis et al. argue that SC deactivation should have changed neural responses in cortex if it regulated attention through visual cortex.

Krauzlis et al. argue that animals without a well-developed neocortex nonetheless show signs of visual attention. Thus, it is likely that the neocortex is not necessary for attention and SC can regulate attention without the neocortex.

Krauzlis et al. argue that attention may not so much be a explicit mechanism but a phenomenon emerging from the need of distributed information processing systems (biological and artificial) for centralized coordination:

According to that view, some centralized control estimates the state of (some part of) the world and modulates both action and perception according to the state which is estimated to be the most plausible at any given point.

Krauzlis et al. localize this central control in the basal ganglia.

Common metaphors for attention are the 'spotlight' metaphor, the 'bottleneck' metaphor and the 'zoomlens' metaphor. At the core of these metaphors is the notion that attention is a mechanism which regulates to which information some limited resource is applied.

Attention affects both early and late perceptual processing.