# Show Reference: "Effects of Degree of Visual Association and Angle of Displacement on the "Ventriloquism" Effect"

Effects of Degree of Visual Association and Angle of Displacement on the "Ventriloquism" Effect Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 37, No. 3. (December 1973), pp. 967-979 by Charles E. Jack, Willard R. Thurlow
@article{jack-and-thurlow-1973,
author = {Jack, Charles E. and Thurlow, Willard R.},
issn = {0031-5125},
journal = {Perceptual and Motor Skills},
month = dec,
number = {3},
pages = {967--979},
pmid = {4764534},
posted-at = {2011-07-25 14:00:59},
priority = {2},
title = {Effects of Degree of Visual Association and Angle of Displacement on the Ventriloquism'' Effect},
url = {http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4764534},
volume = {37},
year = {1973}
}

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Two stimuli in different modalities are perceived as one multi-sensory stimulus if the position in space and point time at which they are presented are not too far apart.

Jack and Thurlow found that the degree to which a puppet resembled an actual speaker (whether it had eyes and a nose, whether it had a lower jaw moving with the speech etc.) and whether the lips of an actual speaker moved in synch with heard speech influenced the strength of the ventriloquism effect.

With increasing distance between stimuli in different modalities, the likelihood of perceiving them as in one location decreases.