Show Reference: "From Swimming to Walking with a Salamander Robot Driven by a Spinal Cord Model"

From Swimming to Walking with a Salamander Robot Driven by a Spinal Cord Model Science, Vol. 315, No. 5817. (09 March 2007), pp. 1416-1420, doi:10.1126/science.1138353 by Auke J. Ijspeert, Alessandro Crespi, Dimitri Ryczko, Jean-Marie Cabelguen
    abstract = {The transition from aquatic to terrestrial locomotion was a key development in vertebrate evolution. We present a spinal cord model and its implementation in an amphibious salamander robot that demonstrates how a primitive neural circuit for swimming can be extended by phylogenetically more recent limb oscillatory centers to explain the ability of salamanders to switch between swimming and walking. The model suggests neural mechanisms for modulation of velocity, direction, and type of gait that are relevant for all tetrapods. It predicts that limb oscillatory centers have lower intrinsic frequencies than body oscillatory centers, and we present biological data supporting this.},
    address = {School of Computer and Communication Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique F\'{e}d\'{e}rale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 14, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.},
    author = {Ijspeert, Auke J. and Crespi, Alessandro and Ryczko, Dimitri and Cabelguen, Jean-Marie},
    citeulike-article-id = {1166030},
    citeulike-linkout-0 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-1 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-2 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-3 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-4 = {},
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    day = {09},
    doi = {10.1126/science.1138353},
    issn = {1095-9203},
    journal = {Science},
    keywords = {biomimetic, biorobotic, cpg, robot},
    month = mar,
    number = {5817},
    pages = {1416--1420},
    pmid = {17347441},
    posted-at = {2014-12-05 11:16:16},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science},
    title = {From Swimming to Walking with a Salamander Robot Driven by a Spinal Cord Model},
    url = {},
    volume = {315},
    year = {2007}

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Ijspert et al. show in an actual robot how the same spinal central pattern generators can produce swimming and walking behavior in a robotic model of a salamander.

Ijspert et al. use their robotic model of a salamander to test hypotheses about the neural networks that produce swimming and walking behaviors in salamanders.