Show Reference: "What Is the Role of Vision in the Development of the Auditory Space Map?"

What Is the role of Vision in the Development of the Auditory Space Map? In The New Handbook of Multisensory Processing (1 June 2012), pp. 573-588 by Yoram Gutfreund, Andrew J. King edited by Barry E. Stein
    address = {Cambridge, MA, USA},
    author = {Gutfreund, Yoram and King, Andrew J.},
    booktitle = {The New Handbook of Multisensory Processing},
    chapter = {32},
    day = {1},
    editor = {Stein, Barry E.},
    keywords = {adaptation, icx, learning, sc},
    month = jun,
    pages = {573--588},
    posted-at = {2012-12-07 15:29:11},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {The MIT Press},
    title = {What Is the role of Vision in the Development of the Auditory Space Map?},
    year = {2012}

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The external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) of the barn owl represents a map of auditory space.

The map of auditory space in the nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) is calibrated by visual experience.

Individually, auditory cues are highly ambiguous with respect to auditory localization.

Cue combination across auditory cue types and channels (frequencies) are needed to combine auditory cues to a meaningful localization.

Auditory localization within the so-called cone of confusion can be disambiguated using spectral cues: changes in the spectral shape of a sound due to how the sound reflects, bounces and passes through features of an animal's body. Such changes can only be detected for known sounds.

Auditory sound source localization is made effective through the combination of different types of cues across frequency channels. It is thus most reliable for familiar broad-band sounds.

If visual cues were absolutely necessary for the formation of an auditory space map, then no auditory space map should develop without visual cues. Since an auditory space map develops also in blind(ed) animals, visual cues cannot be strictly necessary.

Many localized perceptual events are either only visual or only auditory. It is therefore not plausible that only audio-visual percepts contribute to the formation of an auditory space map.

Visual information plays a role, but does not seem to be necessary for the formation of an auditory space map.

The auditory space maps developed by animals without patterned visual experience seem to be degraded only in some species (in guinea pigs and barn owls, but not in ferrets or cats).

Self-organization may play a role in organizing auditory localization independent of visual input.

Visual input does seem to be necessary to ensure spatial audio-visual map-register.

Audio-visual map registration has its limits: strong distortions of natural perception can only partially be compensated through adaptation.

Register between sensory maps is necessary for proper integration of multi-sensory stimuli.

Visual localization has much greater precision and reliability than auditory localization. This seems to be one reason for vision guiding hearing (in this particular context) and not the other way around.

It is unclear and disputed whether visual dominance in adaptation is hard-wired or a result of the quality of respective stimuli.