Show Reference: "Visual categorization is automatic and obligatory: Evidence from Stroop-like paradigm"

Visual categorization is automatic and obligatory: Evidence from Stroop-like paradigm Journal of Vision, Vol. 14, No. 1. (16 January 2014), 14, doi:10.1167/14.1.14 by Michelle R. Greene, Li Fei-Fei
    abstract = {Human observers categorize visual stimuli with remarkable efficiency—a result that has led to the suggestion that object and scene categorization may be automatic processes. We tested this hypothesis by presenting observers with a modified Stroop paradigm in which object or scene words were presented over images of objects or scenes. Terms were either congruent or incongruent with the images. Observers classified the words as being object or scene terms while ignoring images. Classifying a word on an incongruent image came at a cost for both objects and scenes. Furthermore, automatic processing was observed for entry-level scene categories, but not superordinate-level categories, suggesting that not all rapid categorizations are automatic. Taken together, we have demonstrated that entry-level visual categorization is an automatic and obligatory process.},
    author = {Greene, Michelle R. and Fei-Fei, Li},
    day = {16},
    doi = {10.1167/14.1.14},
    issn = {1534-7362},
    journal = {Journal of Vision},
    keywords = {biology, classification, cognition, visual, visual-processing},
    month = jan,
    number = {1},
    pages = {14+},
    pmid = {24434626},
    posted-at = {2014-01-21 09:02:46},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology},
    title = {Visual categorization is automatic and obligatory: Evidence from Stroop-like paradigm},
    url = {},
    volume = {14},
    year = {2014}

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Stroop presented color words which were either presented in the color they meant (congruent) or in a different (incongruent) color. He asked participants to name the color in which the words were written and observed that participants were faster in naming the color when it was congruent than when it was incongruent with the meaning of the word.

The Stroop test has been used to argue that reading is an automatic task for proficient readers.

Greene and Fei-Fei show in a Stroop-like task that scene categorization is automatic and obligatory for simple (`entry-level') categories but not for more complex categories.