# Show Reference: "A bimodal map of space: somatosensory receptive fields in the macaque putamen with corresponding visual receptive fields."

A bimodal map of space: somatosensory receptive fields in the macaque putamen with corresponding visual receptive fields. Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 97, No. 1. (1993), pp. 96-109 by Michael S. Graziano, Charles G. Gross
@article{graziano-and-gross-1993,
abstract = {The macaque putamen contains neurons that respond to somatosensory stimuli such as light touch, joint movement, or deep muscle pressure. Their receptive fields are arranged to form a map of the body. In the face and arm region of this somatotopic map we found neurons that responded to visual stimuli. Some neurons were bimodal, responding to both visual and somatosensory stimuli, while others were purely visual, or purely somatosensory. The bimodal neurons usually responded to light cutaneous stimulation, rather than to joint movement or deep muscle pressure. They responded to visual stimuli near their tactile receptive field and were not selective for the shape or the color of the stimuli. For cells with tactile receptive fields on the face, the visual receptive field subtended a solid angle extending from the tactile receptive field to about 10 cm. For cells with tactile receptive fields on the arm, the visual receptive field often extended further from the animal. These bimodal properties provide a map of the visual space that immediately surrounds the monkey. The map is organized somatotopically, that is, by body part, rather than retinotopically as in most visual areas. It could function to guide movements in the animal's immediate vicinity. Cortical areas 6, 7b, and {VIP} contain bimodal cells with very similar properties to those in the putamen. We suggest that the bimodal cells in area 6, 7b, {VIP}, and the putamen form part of an interconnected system that represents extra personal space in a somatotopic fashion.},
author = {Graziano, Michael S. and Gross, Charles G.},
citeulike-article-id = {5909564},
issn = {0014-4819},
journal = {Experimental Brain Research},
keywords = {biology, multisensory, putamen, somatosensation, topographic-maps, visual},
number = {1},
pages = {96--109},
pmid = {8131835},
posted-at = {2014-09-30 08:53:57},
priority = {2},
title = {A bimodal map of space: somatosensory receptive fields in the macaque putamen with corresponding visual receptive fields.},
url = {http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8131835},
volume = {97},
year = {1993}
}



There's a topographic map of somatosensory space in the putamen.

Electrostimulation of putamen neurons can evoke body movement consistent with the map of somatosensory space in that brain region.

There are visuo-somatosensory neurons in the putamen.

Graziano and Gross found visuo-somatosensory neurons in those regions of the putamen which code for arms and the face in somatosensory space.

Visuo-somatosensory neurons in the putamen with somatosensory RFs in the face are very selective: They seem to respond to visual stimuli consistent with an upcoming somatosensory stimulus (close-by objects approaching to the somatosensory RFs of the neurons).

Graziano and Gross report on visuo-somatosensory cells in the putamen in which remapping seems to be happening: Those cells responded to visual stimuli only when the animal could see the arm in which the somatosensory RF of those cells was located.

There are reports of highly selective, purely visual cells in the putamen. One report is of a cell which responded best to a human face.

Responses of visuo-tactile responses in Brodman area 7b, the ventral intraparietal area, and inferior premotor area 6 are similar to those found in the putamen.