Show Reference: "Young Children Do Not Integrate Visual and Haptic Form Information"

Young Children Do Not Integrate Visual and Haptic Form Information Current Biology, Vol. 18, No. 9. (6 May 2008), pp. 694-698, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.04.036 by Monica Gori, Michela Del Viva, Giulio Sandini, David C. Burr
    abstract = {Summary Several studies have shown that adults integrate visual and haptic information (and information from other modalities) in a statistically optimal fashion, weighting each sense according to its reliability [1] and [2]. When does this capacity for crossmodal integration develop? Here, we show that prior to 8 years of age, integration of visual and haptic spatial information is far from optimal, with either vision or touch dominating totally, even in conditions in which the dominant sense is far less precise than the other (assessed by discrimination thresholds). For size discrimination, haptic information dominates in determining both perceived size and discrimination thresholds, whereas for orientation discrimination, vision dominates. By 8-10 years, the integration becomes statistically optimal, like adults. We suggest that during development, perceptual systems require constant recalibration, for which cross-sensory comparison is important. Using one sense to calibrate the other precludes useful combination of the two sources.},
    author = {Gori, Monica and Del Viva, Michela and Sandini, Giulio and Burr, David C.},
    day = {6},
    doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2008.04.036},
    journal = {Current Biology},
    keywords = {alignment, biology, learning, multi-modality},
    month = may,
    number = {9},
    pages = {694--698},
    pmid = {18450446},
    posted-at = {2011-12-14 10:54:26},
    priority = {2},
    title = {Young Children Do Not Integrate Visual and Haptic Form Information},
    url = {},
    volume = {18},
    year = {2008}

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Children do not integrate information the same way adults do in some tasks. Specifically, they sometimes do not integrate information optimally, where adults do integrate it optimally.

In an adapted version of Ernst and Banks' visuo-haptic height estimation paradigm, Gori et al. found that childrern under the age of 8 do not integrate visual and haptic information optimally where adults do.

Ernst and Banks show that humans combine visual and haptic information optimally in a height estimation task.