Show Reference: "Neuronal Population Coding of Movement Direction"

Neuronal Population Coding of Movement Direction Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 233, No. 4771. (26 September 1986), pp. 1416-1419, doi:10.1126/science.3749885 by Apostolos P. Georgopoulos, Andrew B. Schwartz, Ronald E. Kettner
    abstract = {Although individual neurons in the arm area of the primate motor cortex are only broadly tuned to a particular direction in three-dimensional space, the animal can very precisely control the movement of its arm. The direction of movement was found to be uniquely predicted by the action of a population of motor cortical neurons. When individual cells were represented as vectors that make weighted contributions along the axis of their preferred direction (according to changes in their activity during the movement under consideration) the resulting vector sum of all cell vectors (population vector) was in a direction congruent with the direction of movement. This population vector can be monitored during various tasks, and similar measures in other neuronal populations could be of heuristic value where there is a neural representation of variables with vectorial attributes.},
    author = {Georgopoulos, Apostolos P. and Schwartz, Andrew B. and Kettner, Ronald E.},
    day = {26},
    doi = {10.1126/science.3749885},
    issn = {0036-8075},
    journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
    keywords = {population-coding, population-vector, visual},
    month = sep,
    number = {4771},
    pages = {1416--1419},
    pmid = {3749885},
    posted-at = {2013-01-29 14:16:05},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science},
    title = {Neuronal Population Coding of Movement Direction},
    url = {},
    volume = {233},
    year = {1986}

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Georgopoulos et al. introduced the notion of population coding and population vector readout.