Show Reference: "Intersensory binding across space and time: A tutorial review"

Intersensory binding across space and time: A tutorial review Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Vol. 75, No. 5. (2013), pp. 790-811, doi:10.3758/s13414-013-0475-4 by Lihan Chen, Jean Vroomen
    abstract = {Spatial ventriloquism refers to the phenomenon that a visual stimulus such as a flash can attract the perceived location of a spatially discordant but temporally synchronous sound. An analogous example of mutual attraction between audition and vision has been found in the temporal domain, where temporal aspects of a visual event, such as its onset, frequency, or duration, can be biased by a slightly asynchronous sound. In this review, we examine various manifestations of spatial and temporal attraction between the senses (both direct effects and aftereffects), and we discuss important constraints on the occurrence of these effects. Factors that potentially modulate ventriloquism—such as attention, synesthetic correspondence, and other cognitive factors—are described. We trace theories and models of spatial and temporal ventriloquism, from the traditional unity assumption and modality appropriateness hypothesis to more recent Bayesian and neural network approaches. Finally, we summarize recent evidence probing the underlying neural mechanisms of spatial and temporal ventriloquism.},
    author = {Chen, Lihan and Vroomen, Jean},
    doi = {10.3758/s13414-013-0475-4},
    journal = {Attention, Perception, \& Psychophysics},
    keywords = {audio, biology, multisensory-integration, ventriloquism-effect, visual},
    number = {5},
    pages = {790--811},
    posted-at = {2013-10-01 08:33:45},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
    title = {Intersensory binding across space and time: A tutorial review},
    url = {},
    volume = {75},
    year = {2013}

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Two stimuli in different modalities are perceived as one multi-sensory stimulus if the position in space and point time at which they are presented are not too far apart.

Localization of audiovisual targets is usually determined more by the location of the visual sub-target than on that of the auditory sub-target.

Especially in situations where visual stimuli are seen clearly and thus localized very easily, this can lead to the so-called ventriloquism effect (aka `visual capture') in which a sound source seems to be localized at the location of the visual target although it is in fact a few degrees away from it.