Show Reference: "Neural Substrate of Defensive Behavior in the Midbrain Tectum"

Neural Substrate of Defensive Behavior in the Midbrain Tectum Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 3. (1994), pp. 339-346 by Marcus L. Brandão, Cardoso, Liana L. Melo, Vitor A. Motta, Norberto C. Coimbra
    abstract = {It has been shown that the gradual increase in the intensity of electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray ({DPAG}), deep layers of the superior colliculus ({DLSC}) and inferior colliculus of rats induces, in a progressive manner, characteristic aversive responses such as arousal, freezing, and escape behavior. The {DPAG}-{DLSC} together with the periventricular gray substance of the diencephalon, amygdala and the inferior colliculus, constitute the neural substrate of aversion in the brain. In general, the behavioral responses induced by midbrain tectum stimulation are accompanied by increases in the mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration. Both the behavioral and autonomic consequences of electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic tectum have been shown to be attenuated by minor tranquilizers, probably through enhancement of {GABAergic} neurotransmission. Besides {GABAergic} mechanisms several lines of evidence have clearly implicated opioid, serotonergic, and excitatory amino acids-mediated mechanisms in the control of the neural substrates commanding defensive behavior in the brain aversive system.},
    author = {Brand\~{a}o, Marcus L. and Cardoso and Melo, Liana L. and Motta, Vitor A. and Coimbra, Norberto C.},
    citeulike-article-id = {11864269},
    citeulike-linkout-0 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-1 = {},
    issn = {0149-7634},
    journal = {Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews},
    keywords = {body-movements, motor, sc},
    number = {3},
    pages = {339--346},
    pmid = {7984352},
    posted-at = {2013-01-03 15:45:23},
    priority = {2},
    title = {Neural Substrate of Defensive Behavior in the Midbrain Tectum},
    url = {},
    volume = {18},
    year = {1994}

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Deactivating or stimulating certain parts of the the deeper layers of the SC induces arousal, freezing and escape behavior as well as a raise in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration.

Reactions can be as complex as running and jumping.