# Show Reference: "Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology"

Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology (07 February 1986) by Valentino Braitenberg
@book{braitenberg-1986,
abstract = {These imaginative thought experiments are the inventions of one of the world's eminent brain researchers. They are "vehicles," a series of hypothetical, self-operating machines that exhibit increasingly intricate if not always successful or civilized "behavior." Each of the vehicles in the series incorporates the essential features of all the earlier models and along the way they come to embody aggression, love, logic, manifestations of foresight, concept formation, creative thinking, personality, and free will. In a section of extensive biological notes, Braitenberg locates many elements of his fantasy in current brain research.  Valentino Braitenberg is a director of the Max Planck Institute of Biological Cybernetics and Honorary Professor of Information Science at the University of T\"{u}bingen, West Germany. A Bradford Book.},
author = {Braitenberg, Valentino},
day = {07},
howpublished = {Paperback},
isbn = {0262521121},
keywords = {psychology, robotics, synthetic-psychology},
month = feb,
posted-at = {2013-10-18 10:59:01},
priority = {2},
publisher = {The MIT Press},
title = {Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology},
url = {http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/redirect?tag=citeulike07-20\&path=ASIN/0262521121},
year = {1986}
}


Actually, motor outputs are not different from secondary sensory signals—efferent copies are exactly that: motor output used for sensory processing. (And raw sensory input can be used as motor signals, as Braitenberg has shown.)

Braitenberg postulates the "the law of uphill analysis and downhill invention", which states that it is easier to build something and see what it does (what it can do) than to analyse something just from the observable output.