Show Reference: "Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update"

Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update. Trends in cognitive sciences, Vol. 8, No. 12. (1 December 2004), pp. 539-546, doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.10.003 by Matthew M. Botvinick, Jonathan D. Cohen, Cameron S. Carter
    abstract = {One hypothesis concerning the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex ({ACC}) is that it functions, in part, to signal the occurrence of conflicts in information processing, thereby triggering compensatory adjustments in cognitive control. Since this idea was first proposed, a great deal of relevant empirical evidence has accrued. This evidence has largely corroborated the conflict-monitoring hypothesis, and some very recent work has provided striking new support for the theory. At the same time, other findings have posed specific challenges, especially concerning the way the theory addresses the processing of errors. Recent research has also begun to shed light on the larger function of the {ACC}, suggesting some new possibilities concerning how conflict monitoring might fit into the cingulate's overall role in cognition and action.},
    address = {University of Pennsylvania, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 10104-6241, USA.},
    author = {Botvinick, Matthew M. and Cohen, Jonathan D. and Carter, Cameron S.},
    citeulike-article-id = {562995},
    citeulike-linkout-0 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-1 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-2 = {},
    citeulike-linkout-3 = {},
    day = {1},
    doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2004.10.003},
    issn = {1364-6613},
    journal = {Trends in cognitive sciences},
    keywords = {attention, biology, control},
    month = dec,
    number = {12},
    pages = {539--546},
    pmid = {15556023},
    posted-at = {2013-09-04 07:37:55},
    priority = {2},
    publisher = {Elsevier Science,},
    title = {Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update},
    url = {},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2004}

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Botvinick et al. advance two interdependent hypotheses:

  1. Conflicts in information processing activate certain cortical areas, most notably the anterior cingulate cortex,
  2. Conflict-related activity causes adjustments in cognitive control of information processing to resolve conflict.