Show Reference: "The ventriloquist effect does not depend on the direction of deliberate visual attention"

The ventriloquist effect does not depend on the direction of deliberate visual attention Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 62, No. 2. (February 2000), pp. 321-332 by Paul Bertelson, Jean Vroomen, BĂ©atrice de Gelder, Jon Driver
    abstract = {It is well known that discrepancies in the location of synchronized auditory and visual events can lead to mislocalizations of the auditory source, so-called ventriloquism. In two experiments, we tested whether such cross-modal influences on auditory localization depend on deliberate visual attention to the biasing visual event. In Experiment 1, subjects pointed to the apparent source of sounds in the presence or absence of a synchronous peripheral flash. They also monitored for target visual events, either at the location of the peripheral flash or in a central location. Auditory localization was attracted toward the synchronous peripheral flash, but this was unaffected by where deliberate visual attention was directed in the monitoring task. In Experiment 2, bilateral flashes were presented in synchrony with each sound, to provide competing visual attractors. When these visual events were equally salient on the two sides, auditory localization was unaffected by which side subjects monitored for visual targets. When one flash was larger than the other, auditory localization was slightly but reliably attracted toward it, but again regardless of where visual monitoring was required. We conclude that ventriloquism largely reflects automatic sensory interactions, with little or no role for deliberate spatial attention.},
    author = {Bertelson, Paul and Vroomen, Jean and de Gelder, B\'{e}atrice and Driver, Jon},
    issn = {0031-5117},
    journal = {Perception \& Psychophysics},
    keywords = {attention, auditory, multisensory-integration, ventriloquism-effect, visual},
    month = feb,
    number = {2},
    pages = {321--332},
    pmid = {10723211},
    posted-at = {2014-05-07 11:26:45},
    priority = {2},
    title = {The ventriloquist effect does not depend on the direction of deliberate visual attention},
    url = {},
    volume = {62},
    year = {2000}

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When asked to ignore stimuli in the visual modality and attend to the auditory modality, increased activity in the auditory temporal cortex and decreased activity in the visual occipital cortex can be observed (and vice versa).

Bertelson et al. did not find a shift of sound source localization due to manipulated endogenous visual spatial attention—localization was shifted only due to (the salience of) light flashes which would induce (automatic, mandatory) exogenous attention.