# Show Reference: "Using Auditory and Visual Stimuli to Investigate the Behavioral and Neuronal Consequences of Reflexive Covert Orienting"

Using Auditory and Visual Stimuli to Investigate the Behavioral and Neuronal Consequences of Reflexive Covert Orienting Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 91, No. 5. (01 May 2004), pp. 2172-2184, doi:10.1152/jn.01080.2003 by Andrew H. Bell, Jillian H. Fecteau, Douglas P. Munoz
@article{bell-et-al-2004,
abstract = {Reflexively orienting toward a peripheral cue can influence subsequent responses to a target, depending on when and where the cue and target appear relative to each other. At short delays between the cue and target [cue-target onset asynchrony ({CTOA})], subjects are faster to respond when they appear at the same location, an effect referred to as reflexive attentional capture. At longer {CTOAs}, subjects are slower to respond when the two appear at the same location, an effect referred to as inhibition of return ({IOR}). Recent evidence suggests that these phenomena originate from sensory interactions between the cue- and target-related responses. The capture of attention originates from a strong target-related response, derived from the overlap of the cue- and target-related activities, whereas {IOR} corresponds to a weaker target-aligned response. If such interactions are responsible, then modifying their nature should impact the neuronal and behavioral outcome. Monkeys performed a cue-target saccade task featuring visual and auditory cues while neural activity was recorded from the superior colliculus ({SC}). Compared with visual stimuli, auditory responses are weaker and occur earlier, thereby decreasing the likelihood of interactions between these signals. Similar to previous studies, visual stimuli evoked reflexive attentional capture at a short {CTOA} (60 ms) and {IOR} at longer {CTOAs} (160 and 610 ms) with corresponding changes in the target-aligned activity in the {SC}. Auditory cues used in this study failed to elicit either a behavioral effect or modification of {SC} activity at any {CTOA}, supporting the hypothesis that reflexive orienting is mediated by sensory interactions between the cue and target stimuli. 10.1152/jn.01080.2003},
author = {Bell, Andrew H. and Fecteau, Jillian H. and Munoz, Douglas P.},
citeulike-article-id = {3055850},
day = {01},
doi = {10.1152/jn.01080.2003},
issn = {1522-1598},
journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
keywords = {attention, auditory, behaviour, biology, sc, visual},
month = may,
number = {5},
pages = {2172--2184},
pmid = {14702335},
posted-at = {2014-06-02 17:21:56},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physiological Society},
title = {Using Auditory and Visual Stimuli to Investigate the Behavioral and Neuronal Consequences of Reflexive Covert Orienting},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.01080.2003},
volume = {91},
year = {2004}
}



Stimuli which are non-predictive in a task—like localized stimuli in one modality which are non-predictive of the position of the target in another modality—can enhance performance in valid instances of that task—like detecting targets which by coincidence are where the non-predictive stimulus was.

This demonstrates the existence of exogenous attention.

A localized visual stimulus can shorten the response to a target stimulus if it appears near and shortly after the first stimulus.

It can lengthen the response time if the target stimulus appears somewhere else or too late.

A localized visual stimulus can lengthen the response time to a target if the target stimulus appears somewhere too late after the first stimulus.

This is called `inhibition of return'.

Bell et al. found that playing a sound before a visual target stimulus did not increase activity in the neurons they monitored for long enough to lead to (neuron-level) multisensory integration.

Bell et al. make it sound like enhancement in SC neurons due to exogenous, visual, spatial attention is due to residual cue-related activity which is combined (non-linearly) with target-related activity.