Show Reference: "Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention"

Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention Journal of Vision, Vol. 9, No. 6. (8 June 2009), doi:10.1167/9.6.2 by Søren K. Andersen, Matthias M. Müller, Steven A. Hillyard
    abstract = {It is well-established that attention can select stimuli for preferential processing on the basis of non-spatial features such as color, orientation, or direction of motion. Evidence is mixed, however, as to whether feature-selective attention acts by increasing the signal strength of to-be-attended features irrespective of their spatial locations or whether it acts by guiding the spotlight of spatial attention to locations containing the relevant feature. To address this question, we designed a task in which feature-selective attention could not be mediated by spatial selection. Participants observed a display of intermingled dots of two colors, which rapidly and unpredictably changed positions, with the task of detecting brief intervals of reduced luminance of 20\% of the dots of one or the other color. Both behavioral indices and electrophysiological measures of steady-state visual evoked potentials showed selectively enhanced processing of the attended-color items. The results demonstrate that feature-selective attention produces a sensory gain enhancement at early levels of the visual cortex that occurs without mediation by spatial attention.},
    author = {Andersen, S{\o}ren K. and M\"{u}ller, Matthias M. and Hillyard, Steven A.},
    day = {8},
    doi = {10.1167/9.6.2},
    issn = {1534-7362},
    journal = {Journal of Vision},
    keywords = {attention, biology, feature-attention, visual},
    month = jun,
    number = {6},
    pmid = {19761293},
    posted-at = {2014-04-09 17:06:38},
    priority = {2},
    title = {Color-selective attention need not be mediated by spatial attention},
    url = {},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2009}

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Feature-based visual attention facilitates neural responses across the visual field (in visual cortex).